Guide to Ruminant Anatomy (ebook)

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La Guía para la anatomía de los rumiantes: disección y aspectos clínicos presenta una referencia concisa y clínicamente relevante a la anatomía de la cabra y el ganado, con ilustraciones esquemáticas en color e imágenes en prosa embalsamadas para comparar.

 

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Guide to Ruminant Anatomy: Dissection and Clinical Aspects (Inglés)

La Guía para la anatomía de los rumiantes: disección y aspectos clínicos presenta una referencia concisa y clínicamente relevante a la anatomía de la cabra y el ganado, con ilustraciones esquemáticas en color e imágenes en prosa embalsamadas para comparar.

Ofrece 244 imágenes digitales en color que representan la anatomía del ganado caprino
Proporciona dibujos lineales seleccionados correlacionados con imágenes de disección de muestras inyectadas arterialmente embalsamadas
Toma un enfoque práctico, con material organizado por sistema corporal dentro de cada región
Demuestra la relevancia clínica de la anatomía básica.
Plantea preguntas de revisión en cada capítulo, con respuestas y videos provistos en un sitio web complementario

Indications

1 The Head, Neck, and Vertebral Column 1

1.1  Skull 2

1.2  Mandible 9

1.3  Paranasal Sinuses 9

1.4  Vertebral Column 14

1.5  Teeth and Age Estimation of Cattle and Small Ruminants (Goats

and Sheep) 16

1.5.1  Definitions and Criteria for Estimating the Age of Ruminants 20

1.5.2  Steps for Estimating the Age of Cattle 22

1.6 Joints of the Head 24

1.6.1  Temporomandibular Joint 24

1.6.2  Atlantooccipital Joint 24

1.6.3  Mandibular Symphysis

1.6.4  Vertebral Joints 25

1.7 Muscles of the Head 25

1.7.1  Cutaneous Muscles 27

1.7.2  Muscles of Facial Expression 28

1.7.3  Muscles of Mastication 28

1.7.4  Pharyngeal Muscles 28

1.7.4.1 Nomenclature of Pharyngeal Muscles 29

1.7.5  Laryngeal Muscles 29

1.7.6  Hyoid Muscles 29

1.7.7  Lingual Muscles 29

1.7.8  Extraocular Muscles 30

1.8 Blood Vessels, Lymph Nodes, and Nerves of the Head 30 1.8.1 Blood Vessels (Arteries and Veins) 30

1.8.1.1  Arteries of the Head 30

1.8.1.2  Veins of the Head 33

1.8.2  Lymph Nodes of the Head and Neck 33

1.8.3  Nerves of the Head 36

1.8.3.1 Summary of Cranial Nerves and Their Functions 36

1.9  Salivary Glands 40

1.10  The Pharynx 40

24

v

vi Contents

1.10.1  Oropharynx 40

1.10.2  Nasopharynx 40

1.10.3  Laryngopharynx 41

1.11  Tongue 41

1.12  The Larynx and Hyoid Apparatus 43

1.12.1  Larynx 43

1.12.2  Hyoid Apparatus 44

1.13 The Eye 45

1.13.1  Superficial Features of the Eye 45

1.13.2  Layers of the Eye 47

1.13.3  Sectioning of the Eyeball 49

1.13.3.1 Chambers of the Eye 49

1.13.4 Drainage Pathway of the Aqueous Humor 49

1.14  Neck Skeleton 49

1.15  Neck Muscles, Nerves, and Vessels 51

1.15.1 Neck Muscles 51

1.15.1.1 Superficial Neck Muscles 54

1.15.1.1.1  Brachiocephalicus Muscle 54

1.15.1.1.2  Omotransversarius Muscle 54

1.15.1.1.3  Trapezius Muscle 55

1.15.1.1.4  Sternocephalicus Muscle 55

1.15.1.1.5  Sternothyroideus and Sternohyoideus Muscles 55

1.15.1.2 Deep Neck Muscles 55

1.15.2  Nerves of the Neck 56

1.15.3  Blood Vessels of the Neck 57

1.16  Nuchal Ligament 57

1.17  Surface Topography (Head and Neck) 58

1.18  Lab ID List for the Head and Neck 62

2 The Thorax 65

2.1  Introduction 66

2.2  Bones of the Thorax 66

2.3  Thoracic Inlet 67

2.4  Basal Border of the Lung and Area for Lung Auscultation 68

2.5  Diaphragmatic Line of Pleural Reflection 68

2.6  Muscles of the Thoracic Wall 69

2.7  Pleura 72

2.7.1  Parietal Pleura 73

2.7.2  Visceral Pleura 73

2.7.3  Connecting Pleura 73

2.7.4  Content of the Pleural Cavity 74

2.7.5  Lung Lobes 74

2.7.6  Mediastinum 74

2.8 Vessels (Arteries and Veins) 75 2.8.1 Blood Circulation: An Overview 75 2.9 Major Veins of the Thorax 76

2.9.1  Cranial Vena Cava 77

2.9.2  Caudal Vena Cava 77

2.9.3  Azygos Veins (Left and Right) 77

2.10 Major Arteries of the Thorax 77

2.10.1  Brachiocephalic Trunk 77

2.10.2  Costocervical Trunk 77

2.10.3  Vertebral Artery 77

2.10.4  Superficial Cervical Artery

2.10.5  Internal Thoracic Artery 78

2.11 Lymphatic Structures 78

2.11.1  Thymus 78

2.11.2  Thoracic Duct 78

2.11.3  Mediastinal and Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes 79

2.12 Nerves (Motor Somatic, Sympathetic, and Parasympathetic) 80

2.12.1  Phrenic Nerve 80

2.12.2  Autonomic Nerves in the Thorax 80

2.12.3  Vagus Nerve 80

2.12.4  Sympathetic Trunk and Sympathetic Ganglia 81

2.13 Heart (Cor) 81

2.13.1  Pericardium 82

2.13.2  External Features of the Heart 82

2.13.3  Interior of the Heart 85

2.13.3.1  Structures of the Right Atrium 85

2.13.3.2  Structures of the Right Ventricle

2.13.3.2.1  Right Atrioventricular Valve 86

2.13.3.2.2  Chordae Tendineae, Papillary Muscles, and Cusps of the Right

Atrioventricular Valve 87

2.13.3.2.3  Trabecula Septomarginalis 87

2.13.3.2.4  Ossa Cordis 87

2.13.3.2.5  Coronary Arteries 87

2.14  Point of Maximum Intensity or Puncta Maxima 88

2.15  Lab ID List for the Thorax 88

3 The Abdomen 91
3.1 Lumbar Vertebrae 92

3.1.1  Bovine Lumbar Vertebrae 92

3.1.2  Goat and Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae 92

3.2 Ligaments of Lumbar Vertebrae 93

3.2.1  Supraspinous Ligament 93

3.2.2  Interspinous Ligaments 93

3.2.3  Intertransverse Ligaments 93

3.2.4  Yellow Ligaments (Interarcuate or Ligament Flava) 93

3.2.5  Dorsal and Ventral Longitudinal Ligaments 94

3.2.6  Intervertebral Disc 94

3.3 Abdominal Wall 94

3.3.1  Paralumbar Fossa 94

3.3.2  Nerves of the Paralumbar Fossa (Flank Anesthesia) 94

3.3.3  Cutaneus Trunci and Omobrachialis Muscles 95

3.3.4  Tunica Flava Abdominis 98

3.3.5  External Abdominal Oblique Muscle 98

3.3.6  Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle 101

3.3.7  Transversus Abdominis Muscle 102

78

86

Contents vii

viii Contents

3.3.8  Rectus Abdominis Muscle 102

3.3.9  Rectus Sheath 103

3.4 Abdominal Cavity 103

3.4.1  Dissection Plan 105

3.4.2  Peritoneum 105

3.4.3  Omentum 105

3.4.4  Ruminant Stomach 110

3.4.4.1 Reticulum 111 3.4.4.1.1 Cardia 116 3.4.4.3 Rumen 116

3.4.4.3  Omasum 120

3.4.4.4  Abomasum 122

3.5 Intestines 122 3.5.1 Small Intestine 124

3.5.1.1  Duodenum 124

3.5.1.2  Mesoduodenum 125

3.5.1.3  Duodenocolic Fold 125

3.5.1.4  Jejunum 125

3.5.1.5  Ileum 128

3.5.1.6  Ileal Orifice 128

3.5.1.7  Ileocecal Fold

3.5.2 Large Intestine 128

3.5.2.1  Cecum and Cecocolic Orifice 129

3.5.2.2  Ascending Colon 129

3.5.2.2.1  Proximal Loop 129

3.5.2.2.2  Spiral Loop 129

3.5.2.2.3  Distal Loop 129

3.6 Other Abdominal Organs 130

3.6.1  Liver 130

3.6.2  Spleen 130

3.6.3  Pancreas 130

3.6.4  Kidney 130

3.7 Vessels 134

3.7.1  Arteries 135

3.7.2  Veins 135

3.7.3  Lymphatics 136

3.8  Palpation of the Live Animal 137

3.9  Lab ID List for the Abdomen 137

4 The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs 139 4.1 Bones of the Pelvis 140
4.1.1 Os Coxae (Pelvic Bone) 140

4.2  Sacrosciatic Ligament 141

4.3  Pelvic Peritoneal Pouches 141

4.4  Urinary Bladder, Ureters, and Ligaments of the Bladder 143

4.5  Male Genitalia 143

4.5.1 Penis 144

4.5.1.1  Root of the Penis and Cavernous Tissue 145

4.5.1.2  Free Part of the Penis and Glans Penis 146

128

4.5.1.3  Retractor Penis Muscle 146

4.5.1.4  Apical Ligament 146

4.5.1.5  Dorsal Nerve of the Penis 148

4.5.2  Male Urethra 149

4.5.3  Prepuce 150

4.5.4  Superficial Inguinal (Scrotal) Lymph Nodes 151

4.5.5  Blood Supply to the Pelvic Viscera and Male Genitalia 152

4.5.6  Testes 152

4.5.7  Male Accessory Sex Glands 156

4.6 Female Reproductive Tract 157

4.6.1  Ovaries 158

4.6.2  Uterine Tubes 158

4.6.3  Uterine Horns 158

4.6.4  Uterine Body 159

4.6.5  Uterine Cervix 159

4.6.6  Vagina 161

4.6.7  Female Pudendum 161

4.6.7.1  Vestibule 161

4.6.7.2  Suburethral Diverticulum 162

4.6.7.3  Vulva 164

4.6.8  Blood Supply of the Female Genital Tract 164

4.6.9  Udder 164

4.6.9.1  Suspensory Apparatus and Interior Structures of the Udder 166

4.6.9.2  Blood Supply and Venous Drainage of the Udder 167

4.6.9.3  Lymphatics of the Udder 168

4.6.9.4  Innervation of the Udder 168

4.7  Live Cow 169

4.8  Lab ID List for the Pelvis and Reproductive Structures 170

5 The Forelimb 173

5.1  Introduction 174

5.2  Bones of the Thoracic Limb 174

5.2.1  Scapula 174

5.2.2  Humerus 176

5.2.3  Radius and Ulna 177

5.2.4  Carpus (Proximal and Distal Rows) 177

5.2.5  Metacarpal Bones (Large Metacarpal or Cannon Bone) 179

5.2.6  Digits 180

5.3 Muscles and Tendons of the Thoracic Limb 181 5.3.1 Extrinsic Muscles of the Forelimb 182

5.3.1.1  Trapezius Muscle (Cervical and Thoracic Parts) 182

5.3.1.2  Rhomboideus Muscle (Cervical and Thoracic Parts) 183

5.3.1.3  Brachiocephalicus Muscle (Cleidocephalicus and Cleidobrachialis) 183

5.3.1.4  Omotransversarius Muscle 184

5.3.1.5  Latissimus Dorsi Muscle 184

5.3.1.6  Superficial Pectoral Muscle (Descending and Transverse Parts) 185

5.3.1.7  Deep (Ascending) Pectoral Muscle 185

5.3.1.8  Serratus Ventralis Muscle 186

5.3.1.9  Subclavius Muscle 187

Contents ix

x Contents

5.3.2 5.3.2.1 5.3.2.1.1 5.3.2.1.2 5.3.2.1.3 5.3.2.1.4 5.3.2.1.5 5.3.2.1.6 5.3.2.1.7 5.3.2.1.8 5.3.2.1.9 5.3.2.1.10 5.3.2.1.11 5.3.2.1.12 5.3.2.2

5.3.2.2.1 5.3.2.2.2 5.3.2.2.3

5.3.2.2.4 5.3.2.2.5 5.3.2.2.6 5.3.2.3 5.3.2.3.1 5.3.2.3.2 5.3.2.3.3 5.3.2.3.4 5.3.2.3.5 5.3.2.3.6

5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3

5.6.4 5.7 5.8 5.8.1 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.11.1 5.11.2 5.11.3 5.11.4

Intrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb 187
Muscles of Proximal Limb (Shoulder and Brachium) 187 Supraspinatus Muscle 187
Infraspinatus Muscle 190
Deltoideus Muscle 190

Teres Minor Muscle
Teres Major Muscle
Subscapularis Muscle 191
Triceps Brachii Muscle (Long, Lateral, Accessory, and Medial Heads) 191 Anconeus Muscle 192
Tensor Fasciae Antebrachii Muscle 192
Coracobrachialis Muscle 192
Biceps Brachii Muscle 192
Brachialis Muscle 193
Muscles and Tendons of the Distal Limb (Antebrachium and Manus [Carpus, Metacarpus, and Digits]) 193
Craniolateral Group (Located on Cranial and Lateral Forearm) 193
Extensor Carpi Radialis Muscle 194
Common Digital Extensor Muscle (Medial and Lateral Heads and Three Tendons) 194
Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle 194
Ulnaris Lateralis Muscle 194
Extensor Carpi Obliquus Muscle 195
Caudomedial Muscle Group of the Antebrachium 196
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle 196
Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle 196
Pronator Teres Muscle 198
Superficial Digital Flexor with Superficial and Deep Parts: Flexor Manica 198 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle 198
Interosseus Muscle (Suspensory Ligament) with Axial and Abaxial Extensor Branches 198
Retinacula 200
Carpal Canal 200
Ligaments of the Digits 201
Proximal Interdigital Ligament 201
Distal Interdigital Ligament 201
Annular Ligaments (Palmar, Proximal, and Distal Digital Annular
Ligaments) 201
Digital Annular Ligaments (Proximal and Distal) 201
Hoof (Wall, Sole, Bulb, and White Line) 201
Arteries and Nerves of the Thoracic Limb 203
Nomenclature of Blood Vessels and Nerves in the Distal Limb 203
Veins of the Forelimb 205
Lymphatics of the Thoracic Limb 206
Nerves of the Thoracic Limb 207
Suprascapular Nerve 207
Subscapular Nerve 207
Axillary Nerve 208
Musculocutaneous Nerve 209

190 191

5.11.5 Radial Nerve 209
5.11.5.1 Branching of the Radial and Ulnar Nerves in the Distal Limb 209 5.11.6 Median and Ulnar Nerves 212
5.12 Joints of the Forelimbs 212

5.12.1  Shoulder Joint 213

5.12.2  Elbow Joint 214

5.12.3  Carpal Joints

5.12.4  Digital Joints

214 215

6 The Hind Limb 217
6.1 Bones of the Hind Limb 218

6.1.1  Os Coxae (Hip Bone) 218

6.1.2  Femur (Thighbone) 218

6.1.3  Bones of the Leg (Crus) 221

6.1.4  Tarsal Bones 222

6.1.5  Fused Metatarsals III and IV (Large Metatarsal Bone) 223

6.1.6  Metatarsal Sesamoid Bone 224

6.2 Muscles of the Pelvic Limb 224 6.2.1 Muscles Acting on the Hip Joint 224 6.2.1.1 Gluteal Muscles 227

6.2.1.1.1  Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle and Fascia Lata 227

6.2.1.1.2  Middle Gluteal Muscle 228

6.2.1.1.3  Deep Gluteal Muscle

6.2.1.2 Hamstring Muscles 228

6.2.1.2.1  Gluteobiceps Muscle 228

6.2.1.2.2  Semitendinosus Muscle 229

6.2.1.2.3  Semimembranosus Muscle 229

6.2.1.3 Medial Adductor Thigh Muscles 230

6.2.1.3.1  Sartorius Muscle 230

6.2.1.3.2  Gracilis Muscle 230

6.2.1.3.3  Pectineus Muscle 231

6.2.1.3.4  Adductor Muscle 231

6.2.1.3.5  External Obturator Muscle 231

6.2.2 Muscles Acting on the Stifle Joint 231 6.2.2.1 Quadriceps Femoris Muscle 231
6.2.3 Muscles Acting on the Hock and Digits 233 6.2.3.1 Craniolateral Muscles of the Leg (Crus) 233

6.2.3.1.1  Fibularis (Peroneus) Tertius Muscle 234

6.2.3.1.2  Long Digital Extensor Muscle 234

6.2.3.1.3  Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle 235

6.2.3.1.4  Cranial Tibial Muscle 235

6.2.3.1.5  Fibularis (Peroneus) Longus Muscle 236

6.2.3.2  Extensor Retinacula 237

6.2.3.3  Caudomedial Muscles of the Leg (Crus) 237

6.2.3.3.1  Soleus Muscle 237

6.2.3.3.2  Gastrocnemius Muscle (Lateral and Medial Heads) 237

6.2.3.3.3  Superficial Digital Flexor Muscle 237

6.6.3.3.4 Common Calcanean (or Calcaneal) Tendon and Calcanean Bursae 238 6.2.3.3.5 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle 238

228

Contents xi

xii Contents

6.2.3.3.6 6.2.3.3.7 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.4.1 6.3.4.2 6.3.4.3 6.3.4.4 6.3.4.5 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.5

6.6

Appendix A

A.1 A.2 A.2.1 A.2.2 A.2.3

A.2.3.1 A.2.4

A.2.5 A.2.5.1 A.2.5.2 A.2.6 A.2.7 A.3 A.4 A.5

Appendix B

Popliteus Muscle 238
Interosseus Muscle (Suspensory Ligament) 238
Blood Vessels and Nerves of the Hind Limbs 238
Overview of Arterial Blood Supply to the Whole Hind Limb 239 Veins of the Hind Limb 241
Lymphatic Structures of the Hind Limb 242
Nerves of the Hind Limb 243
Femoral Nerve 244
Obturator Nerve 245
Sciatic Nerve 245
Common Fibular (Peroneal) Nerve 245
Tibial Nerve 249
Joints of the Hind Limb 249
Hip Joint 249
Stifle Joint 249
Hock (or Tarsus) Joint 250
Live Cow 250
Lab ID List for Forelimb and Hind Limb 250

Dissection Instructions for a Goat Cadaver 255
Dissection Labs 255
Dissection of Goat Neck and Body Cavities (Labs, 1, 2, and 3) 255 Removal of the Thoracic Limb 255
Removal of the Pelvic (Hind) Limb 256
Skinning of the Neck and Flank on the Side Where the Limbs are
Removed 256
Neck 257
Opening the Thorax and Abdomen for Studying the Topography on the Left and Right Sides 257
Thorax 258
Thoracic Landmarks 258
Nerves and Vessels Within the Thorax 259
Abdomen (In Situ and on Extirpated Viscera) 260
Dissection of Male and Female Pelvis (Lab 4) 260
Head Dissection (Lab 5) 261
Forelimb Dissection (Labs 6 and 7) 261
Hind Limb Dissection (Labs 8 and 9) 261

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